Capacitor is a device which stores electric charge. Capacitor is one of the  passive components. It is regarded as an energy storage element rather than an impedance(effective resistance). It is necessary to get some knowledge about capacitor before getting into technical matter.

                                    The leyden jar was the first capacitor invented at 1745 by Pieter van Musschenbroek. Capacitor vary in size and shape but the basic structure is two conductors carrying equal but opposite charges.  
                                    In the uncharged state the charge on the either side of the conducting plate of the capacitor is zero.  During the charging process a charge Q is moved from one plate of the conductor to the other plate of the conductor giving +ve charge for the one plate and -ve charge for the other plate.  A potential difference del V is created, where positive charged plate is at higher potential whereas the negative charged plate is at the lowest potential.

                                       Note that whether the capacitor is charged or uncharged, the net charge on the capacitor is always zero as the whole.

                                      From the above we can state that the charge in capacitor is directly proportional to the potential difference. 

                                       Where c is the capacitance which  is nothing but the amount or quantity of the electrostatic potential energy that the capacitor can have and it is measured in farads.It depends the geometrical quantities of the conductor. The capacitance is measured in terms of farad.

                                     We can give many definition  to the capacitor.  But, it is nothing but an energy storage element. obviously it differs from resistor in many aspects. Let us first see some characteristics of the capacitor.
                                      Capacitors generally discharge very slowly. Most capacitors can store some amount of charge for years.  That is why it is very important to treat all the capacitors as if they are holding a full charge.  Discharging the capacitor in a unsecured manner is dangerous.  It can lead in burns and even death sometimes when the capacitor is large the damage is even more.  
                                       supercapacitors are made from graphene as a conducting plates which are capable of storing a charge similar to lithium ion batteries.  Graphene is one of the best conducting materials found in capacitors and in real life.
                                      We can also say capacitor is a  ratio of charge given to the conductor to the potential difference absorbed in the conductor.                                 
                                      Capacitors have many important applications in electronics. Some examples include storing electric potential energy, delaying voltage changes when coupled with resistors, filtering out unwanted frequency signals, forming resonant circuits and making frequency-dependent and independent voltage dividers when combined with resistors

what happens if dc supply is given to the capacitor?                                                                         
                     So many times i have thought that what happen if  we give a  DC supply to the capacitor finally here is the solution. If we give  DC supply to the capacitor first it gets charged  to a particular potential that depends on the supply voltage because that decides the saturation point of the capacitor. once the capacitor charged after that  it will starts to discharge . Usually we say that current does not flow when we provide a DC supply. This is because, it will store the potential energy as an electrical energy and it does not allow the current to flow so the charged capacitor is assumed to be an open circuit .                                                                                                                                                                                                                             for capacitors datasheet click here
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